Certain planets require special gear; players will be unable to beam to these planets unless they meet the requirements.
Players can activate beam transport by clicking the 'Teleport Button' in the UI. On planets this button has an arrow pointing up, and on ships the arrow is pointing down. Each planet has a default point that players will beam down to, but players will eventually have the ability to craft an object to relocate their spawn point on the planet.
As of Spirited Giraffe, a small animation plays during a teleport after the initial beam up/down and lasts until arrivial at the destination.
The player is able to beam back up to the ship from underground if the background is removed and they are still close to the surface. It is unknown if this is intentional or not.