The Moon Biome is a planetary biome with a thin atmosphere and low temperatures. It has little to no plant life, but monsters and NPC's are present. With the lack of an atmosphere, the player requires the Survival System or will eventually run out of air. It is possible to plant Strange Seeds as long as you place Dirt Blocks or any other block that allows the placement of Strange Seeds.
Moon Biomes are most likely not the dead planets referenced in this AMA , as that is more likely to be the Tentacle Biome. The Moon Biome is very cold and requires either high warmth armors or a large supply of torches or Camp Fires in order to not freeze to death. Due to the Moon Biome being very cold and airless, it is compensated with exceptionally high quantities of ores. If you dig far enough below the moon's surface, the cold will no longer affect you.
Primary: Moon Dust
Starbound chooses one of the following groups of weather for each planet.
Groups 4 - 9