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To apply dye, grab it with left-click and then right-clicking the piece of armor or clothing with the dye still in the cursor. Dye can be removed with Dye Remover (applied in the same way). Note depending on some clothing/armor with the same base color as the dye will not use the dye when rick-clicked. There are also different clothing/armor that have their own color base and can use all dye variations.
Currently there is no way to dye furniture in-game without the help of mods.
Painting is accessible in Paint Mode and is a Matter Manipulator upgrade. With this mode you are able to recolor most block types. To use paint mode first install the mode and then simply click on it in the second slot in the middle of the toolbar or simply press the Y key. Each right click will cycle through colors in the order of red, blue , green, yellow, orange, pink, black, white, and lastly a color remover that will bring a block to its original color. To paint blocks one by one simply hold the shift key while in paint mode.