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Gravity is a force that attracts objects towards planets. It determines the physics of jumping and falling, so under reduced gravity, a player will be able to jump higher, and will be able to fall for a slightly longer time before suffering damage. In sufficiently low gravity, a player would appear to glide toward the ground, while under zero gravity, a player will simply float, largely unable to move.
Certain weapons projectiles, such as bullets, are also subject to gravity and will be pulled on a downward trajectory when fired on a planet. Some legacy techs could ignore gravity, but all currently enabled techs are subject to gravity. Some weapons effects, such as Rising Slash, can temporarily negate gravity, which can be useful to prevent a death from fall damage, if triggered at the right time.
In the released version of the game, all planets have equal gravity. Moons have half gravity. Some space stations (e.g., NPC space stations) have full planetary gravity, while other space stations (e.g., Peacekeeper stations) have half gravity. Each major dungeon in a world can have a separate level of gravity, but all released dungeons currently use normal planetary gravity.
Asteroid Fields and Space Encounters have no gravity, which is why the player can only deploy to them in a mech. Any player who leaves their mech in zero gravity will float with very minimal control over their own movement; only a spear with the rocket spear secondary ability enables movement outside of a mech in zero gravity.